# Calculate a Keplerian (two body) orbit¶

Although the two-body problem has long been solved, calculation the orbit position of a body in an eccentric orbit — maybe a planet — as a function of time is not trivial. The major complication is solving Kepler’s Equation. The classes defined here do this job.

The definitions and most of the formulae used in this class derive from the book “Orbital Motion” by A.E. Roy.

## Orbital elements and orientation of the orbit¶

- Orientation of the ellipse in the coordinate system
For zero inclination the ellipse is located in the x-y plane. If the eccentricity is increased, the periastron will lie in +x direction. If the inclination is increased, the ellipse will be rotating around the x-axis, so that +y is rotated toward +z. An increase in Omega corresponds to a rotation around the z-axis so that +x is rotated toward +y. Changing w, i.e., the argument of the periastron, will not change the plane of the orbit, but rather represent a rotation of the orbit in the plane. In particular, the periapsis is shifted in the direction of motion.

- Orbital angular momentum
For all parameters but semi-major axis and orbital period set to zero, the (orbital) angular momentum points into the +z direction. For an inclination of 90 deg (the remaining parameters remaining zero), it points in the -y direction.

- Orientation of the ellipse in the sky
To project the ellipse onto the sky, the coordinate system should be oriented so that the +x direction points North and the +y direction points East (direction of increasing right ascension). The +z axis must be chosen so that the coordinate system becomes right handed. If the line of sight (LOS) points in the +z direction, i.e., the observer is located on the negative z axis, the parameters assume their conventional meaning.

- The ascending and descending nodes
For systems outside the Solar System, the ascending node is the point where the body “crosses” the plane of the sky away from the observer. Likewise, the descending node is the point where the plane is crossed with the body approaching the observer. For the coordinate system described above and a value of zero for the longitude of the ascending node, the latter is in the North and rotates toward East (i.e., +y) when the longitude of the ascending node is increased.

- The argument and longitude of periapsis
The argument of periapsis is the angle between the ascending node and the periapsis of the body measured in the direction of motion. For exoplanets with circular orbits, for which no well-defined periapsis exists, the argument of periapsis is often chosen so that time of periapsis and central transit time coincide. For the planet, this is the case if the argument of periapsis is -90 deg. However, in the exoplanet literature, the argument of periapsis often refers to the

*stellar*orbit (see, e.g., Pollacco et al. 2008, MNRAS 385, 1576-1584, Sect. 3.2.1). In this case, the corresponding value is +90 deg. The so-called longitude of the periapsis is given by the sum of the longitude of the ascending node and the argument of periapsis.

## Example: Invoking the solver for Kepler’s Equation¶

This example demonstrates how to use the solver for Kepler’s Equation.

```
from __future__ import print_function, division
from PyAstronomy import pyasl
# Instantiate the solver
ks = pyasl.MarkleyKESolver()
# Solves Kepler's Equation for a set
# of mean anomaly and eccentricity.
# Uses the algorithm presented by
# Markley 1995.
M = 0.75
e = 0.3
print("Eccentric anomaly: ", ks.getE(M, e))
```

## Example: Calculating the orbit¶

Here we show how the orbit can be calculated.

```
from __future__ import print_function, division
import numpy as np
from PyAstronomy import pyasl
import matplotlib.pylab as plt
# Instantiate a Keplerian elliptical orbit with
# semi-major axis of 1.3 length units,
# a period of 2 time units, eccentricity of 0.5,
# longitude of ascending node of 70 degrees, an inclination
# of 10 deg, and a periapsis argument of 110 deg.
ke = pyasl.KeplerEllipse(1.3, 2., e=0.5, Omega=70., i=10.0, w=110.0)
# Get a time axis
t = np.linspace(0, 1.9, 200)
# Calculate the orbit position at the given points
# in a Cartesian coordinate system.
pos = ke.xyzPos(t)
print("Shape of output array: ", pos.shape)
# x, y, and z coordinates for 50th time point
print("x, y, z for 50th point: ", pos[50, ::])
# Calculate orbit radius as a function of the
radius = ke.radius(t)
# Calculate velocity on orbit
vel = ke.xyzVel(t)
# Find the nodes of the orbit (Observer at -z)
ascn, descn = ke.xyzNodes_LOSZ()
# Plot x and y coordinates of the orbit
plt.subplot(2, 1, 1)
plt.title("Periapsis (red diamond), Asc. node (green circle), desc. node (red circle)")
plt.xlabel("East ->")
plt.ylabel("North ->")
plt.plot([0], [0], 'k+', markersize=9)
plt.plot(pos[::, 1], pos[::, 0], 'bp')
# Point of periapsis
plt.plot([pos[0, 1]], [pos[0, 0]], 'rd')
# Nodes of the orbit
plt.plot([ascn[1]], [ascn[0]], 'go', markersize=10)
plt.plot([descn[1]], [descn[0]], 'ro', markersize=10)
# Plot RV
plt.subplot(2, 1, 2)
plt.xlabel("Time")
plt.ylabel("Radial velocity [length/time]")
plt.plot(t, vel[::, 2], 'r.-')
plt.show()
```

## Module API¶

The module defines the following classes:

The KeplerEllipse class calculates the orbit and provides some convenience functions. For instance, the foci of the ellipse, and the peri- and apastron positions can be calculated.

The MarkleyKESolver class implements a solver for Kepler’s equation, which is needed to calculate the orbit as a function of time.